1-1 Purpose of this study
My future goal is to be an English teacher in Elementary school or Junior High School. Now, I am studying how to create English Class. I had some chances to observe English class in Junior High School. At that time, I found that teacher attached importance to reflection. Reflection sheet was well-prepared one. I was very surprised to know that. In my experience, I did not do any reflection activity in each class. Only reflection activity I did was self-evaluation after speech or presentation in front of my class.
I think reflection becomes more important in Japanese education because of the changing of curriculum guideline. I think reflection is important, but I cannot explain the reasons. We human study many things not only in the school but also in daily life. We are able to learn from behavior we did in the past and avoid doing mistake in natural way. I want to know how reflection effect to people’s mind, and what should we do for students as an English teacher. I think reflection activity is likely to cut because of the time management in the school. To change this situation, I want to obvious the effectiveness to do reflection activity and convey it to teachers and learners.
2-2 Significance of this study
In japan, the course of study curriculum guidance is going to revise from 2020 to 2021. Proactive, interactive, and deep learning is one of the main points in new course of study curriculum guidance. Reflection activity leads to proactive learning. If students do reflection of the class, they can know themselves well and try to improve in the next class.
2. Current situation of Reflection activity in Japanese school
2-1 Opinion of reflection activity in Japanese education
According to the course of study curriculum guidance, students have to do proactive, interactive, and deep learning. 引用もとをかくAim and contents of the English class are important things for students to study. However, reflection is also important to connect motivation to the next lesson. According to the I saw the guideline of teaching in Gunma, aim has to connect to reflection during the class. “What did you learn?” and “How did you learn?” are two main points.
2-2 Current situation of reflection activity in English education in Japan
When I observed English class in Junior High School, I was able to see worksheet which students used. On the work sheet, students did reflection with two points, 1.Language (What sentences / expressions did you learn? ) and, 2.Contents (What did you find / learn in the class?) Because of the different characteristics among the subjects, the viewpoints to do reflection are not same. Teachers should understand well about subject they specialized in.
3. Research Questions
What is the effectiveness of reflection?
How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?
4. What is the effectiveness of reflection?
First research question is “What is the effectiveness of reflection.?” To answer this question, I found three points.
4-1 Effectiveness for students
The first point is that reflection activity encourages students. Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) said, “students experienced more positive feelings as time passed and the project improved. Motivation, enthusiasm, and confidence rose from 40 to 53 percent, and negative feelings (anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, etc.) decreased from 36 to 27 percent.” Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J (2017,P.12) argued that “It is obvious that they are able to notice their weaknesses in writing and able to take appropriate actions to revise their essays.” In brief, reflection activity connects to encouraging students for their studying.
4-2 Effectiveness for teacher
The second point is that reflection allow teachers to understand students and create good relationships. Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J (2017) argued that “The reflections allow teachers to understand students’ responses to the pedagogical practices that would otherwise remain hidden.” Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, P.2) said, “Finally, reflection journals have the potential to improve student-professor relationships”. In short, teachers will be able to grasp students well. Moreover, this allows teacher to give useful advice for students and create good relationships.
4-3 Effectiveness for studying
The third point is that students are able to understand themselves well and utilize for their study. Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, P.9) said, “the exercise encouraged students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, strategies for improvement, outcomes for future learning, emotions and attitudes”. When I read Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018, P.6), I saw some examples of reflection question and author argued, “It lends direction and relevance to a course of study. Most importantly, it gives students tangible language they need to discuss their learning, and clear criteria to identify personal strengths and areas for improvement”. Minoru N, Kouichi M, and Hiroh Y (2017,P.209) argued, “These points suggest that participants gradually recognised their actual learning situation well and made additional effort to take better notes during the course.” To sum up, reflection allows students to focus on the ability of themselves and set a goal to study in the future to achieve the goals.
5. How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?
Second research question is “How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?”
5-1 Reflection writing
Through the research, I found that the easiest way to do reflection is “reflection writing.” There are some ways to do reflection writing. For example, reflection journal, using Facebook, and using Moodle. There are some ways to do reflection journal. However, I found some important points to implement it.
First point is that “setting some questions to stimulate reflective thinking.” Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017) use reflection journal as a tool for doing reflection. They set some questions and students have to select one of them. It allows students to do reflection more easily. Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) refer to Student-Led Conferences using reflection. In this article, I saw some writing materials for students which has some questions.
Second point is that “feedback enable students to motive and improve their skills”.
To give a feedback, Moodle is useful tool. Jun I, John C, and Sarah-Jane S (2013, P.140) argued, “This framework provides learners with not only overall feedback, but also specific advice on which module(s) to review and which competencies they need to develop as illustrated in Figure 3.” Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J (2017) argued about reflective writing using Facebook. They revealed that Facebook is useful tool to give feedback both students and teachers.
6-1 Summary of this research paper
In Japan, reflection activity is considered as important activity in learning process because of the transforming of the course of study curriculum guidance. There are three kinds of effectiveness of reflection activity. The first one is “effectiveness for students”. Reflection activity enable for students to give positive feeling and encourage them. Second point is “Effectiveness for teacher”.Reflection activity allows teachers to understand students and create good relationships. Third point is “Effectiveness for studying”. Students are able to understand themselves well and utilize for their study. To do reflection activity, “reflection writing” is useful. There are some ways to do reflection writing. To carry out reflection activity, setting some questions and give students feedback is also important.
6-2 Further research
I could read articles which target is students in foreign country and know how to do reflection activity for them. I also know the effectiveness of reflection activity in aspect of students, teachers and studying. However, I could not find the articles which focus on Japanese students. I want to know current situation in Japanese education in the future.
Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017). Evaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of Reflection Writing 8(1), 11Doi:https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2017.1.8
Jun I, John C, and Sarah-Jane S
USING SELF-REFLECTION AND BADGES IN MOODLE- BASED MEDICAL ENGLISH REVIEW COURSES FOR ENHANCING LEARNERS’ AUTONOMY
Conference: International Conference on Educational Technology 2013
(Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Nov 29-Dec 1, 2013)
Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) Student-Led Conferences: Empowering Students through Self-Assessment and Reflection Conference: Assessment and Evaluation in the Global South The Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development Presentation Date: November 9, 2018, 1-17 https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED591424.pdf
Minoru N, Kouichi M, and Hiroh Y(2017). How Note-Taking Instruction changes Student’s Reflections upon their Learning Activity during a Blended Learning Course Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15 (3), 200-210 URL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1146029.pdf
Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J (2017). Exploring students’ reflective writing on Facebook. The EUROCALL Review,Volume 25, (2), 3-15