First Draft of Research Paper

1. Introduction

  1-1 Purpose of this study

My future goal is to be an English teacher in Elementary school or Junior High School. Now, I am studying how to create English Class. I had some chances to observe English class in Junior High School. At that time, I found that teacher attached importance to reflection. Reflection sheet was well-prepared one. I was very surprised to know that. In my experience, I did not do any reflection activity in each class. Only reflection activity I did was self-evaluation after speech or presentation in front of my class.

I think reflection becomes more important in Japanese education because of the changing of curriculum guideline. I think reflection is important, but I cannot explain the reasons. We human study many things not only in the school but also in daily life. We are able to learn from behavior we did in the past and avoid doing mistake in natural way. I want to know how reflection effect to people’s mind, and what should we do for students as an English teacher. I think reflection activity is likely to cut because of the time management in the school. To change this situation, I want to obvious the effectiveness to do reflection activity and convey it to teachers and learners.

  2-2 Significance of this study

In japan, the course of study curriculum guidance is going to revise from 2020 to 2021. Proactive, interactive, and deep learning is one of the main points in new course of study curriculum guidance. Reflection activity leads to proactive learning. If students do reflection of the class, they can know themselves well and try to improve in the next class. 

2. Current situation of Reflection activity in Japanese school

  2-1 Opinion of reflection activity in Japanese education

According to the course of study curriculum guidance, students have to do proactive, interactive, and deep learning. 引用もとをかくAim and contents of the English class are important things for students to study. However, reflection is also important to connect motivation to the next lesson. According to the  I saw the guideline of teaching in Gunma, aim has to connect to reflection during the class. “What did you learn?” and “How did you learn?” are two main points. 

 2-2 Current situation of reflection activity in English education in Japan

When I observed English class in Junior High School, I was able to see worksheet which students used. On the work sheet, students did reflection with two points, 1.Language (What sentences / expressions did you learn? ) and, 2.Contents (What did you find / learn in the class?) Because of the different characteristics among the subjects, the viewpoints to do reflection are not same. Teachers should understand well about subject they specialized in. 

 3. Research Questions

 What is the effectiveness of reflection?

  How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?

4. What is the effectiveness of reflection?

First research question is “What is the effectiveness of reflection.?” To answer this question, I found three points. 

  4-1 Effectiveness for students

 The first point is that reflection activity encourages students. Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) said, “students experienced more positive feelings as time passed and the project improved. Motivation, enthusiasm, and confidence rose from 40 to 53 percent, and negative feelings (anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, etc.) decreased from 36 to 27 percent.” Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J (2017,P.12) argued that “It is obvious that they are able to notice their weaknesses in writing and able to take appropriate actions to revise their essays.” In brief, reflection activity connects to encouraging students for their studying. 

  4-2 Effectiveness for teacher

 The second point is that reflection allow teachers to understand students and create good relationships. Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J  (2017) argued that “The reflections allow teachers to understand students’ responses to the pedagogical practices that would otherwise remain hidden.” Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, P.2) said, “Finally, reflection journals have the potential to improve student-professor relationships”. In short, teachers will be able to grasp students well. Moreover, this allows teacher to give useful advice for students and create good relationships. 

  4-3 Effectiveness for studying

The third point is that students are able to understand themselves well and utilize for their study. Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, P.9) said, “the exercise encouraged students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, strategies for improvement, outcomes for future learning, emotions and attitudes”. When I read Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018, P.6), I saw some examples of reflection question and author argued, “It lends direction and relevance to a course of study. Most importantly, it gives students tangible language they need to discuss their learning, and clear criteria to identify personal strengths and areas for improvement”. Minoru N, Kouichi M, and Hiroh Y (2017,P.209) argued, “These points suggest that participants gradually recognised their actual learning situation well and made additional effort to take better notes during the course.” To sum up, reflection allows students to focus on the ability of themselves and set a goal to study in the future to achieve the goals.

5. How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?

 Second research question is “How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?”

  5-1 Reflection writing

Through the research, I found that the easiest way to do reflection is “reflection writing.” There are some ways to do reflection writing. For example, reflection journal, using Facebook, and using Moodle. There are some ways to do reflection journal. However, I found some important points to implement it. 

First point is that “setting some questions to stimulate reflective thinking.” Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017) use reflection journal as a tool for doing reflection. They set some questions and students have to select one of them. It allows students to do reflection more easily. Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) refer to Student-Led Conferences using reflection. In this article, I saw some writing materials for students which has some questions. 

Second point is that “feedback enable students to motive and improve their skills”. 

To give a feedback, Moodle is useful tool. Jun I, John C, and Sarah-Jane S (2013, P.140) argued, “This framework provides learners with not only overall feedback, but also specific advice on which module(s) to review and which competencies they need to develop as illustrated in Figure 3.” Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J  (2017) argued about reflective writing using Facebook. They revealed that Facebook is useful tool to give feedback both students and teachers. 

6. Conclusion

  6-1 Summary of this research paper

 In Japan, reflection activity is considered as important activity in learning process because of the transforming of the course of study curriculum guidance. There are three kinds of effectiveness of reflection activity. The first one is “effectiveness for students”. Reflection activity enable for students to give positive feeling and encourage them. Second point is “Effectiveness for teacher”.Reflection activity allows teachers to understand students and create good relationships. Third point is “Effectiveness for studying”. Students are able to understand themselves well and utilize for their study. To do reflection activity, “reflection writing” is useful. There are some ways to do reflection writing. To carry out reflection activity, setting some questions and give students feedback is also important. 

  6-2 Further research

 I could read articles which target is students in foreign country and know how to do reflection activity for them. I also know the effectiveness of reflection activity in aspect of students, teachers and studying. However, I could not find the articles which focus on Japanese students. I want to know current situation in Japanese education in the future.

7. References

Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017). Evaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of Reflection Writing 8(1), 11Doi:https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2017.1.8

Jun I, John C, and Sarah-Jane S

USING SELF-REFLECTION AND BADGES IN MOODLE- BASED MEDICAL ENGLISH REVIEW COURSES FOR ENHANCING LEARNERS’ AUTONOMY

Conference: International Conference on Educational Technology 2013  

(Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Nov 29-Dec 1, 2013)

クリックしてED557184.pdfにアクセス

Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018)  Student-Led Conferences: Empowering Students through Self-Assessment and Reflection   Conference: Assessment and Evaluation in the Global South The Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development Presentation Date: November 9, 2018, 1-17 https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED591424.pdf

Minoru N, Kouichi M, and Hiroh Y(2017). How Note-Taking Instruction changes Student’s Reflections upon their Learning Activity during a Blended Learning Course Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15 (3), 200-210                               URL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1146029.pdf

Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J  (2017). Exploring students’ reflective writing on Facebook. The EUROCALL Review,Volume 25, (2), 3-15 

doi: 10.4995/eurocall.2017.7750

Outline of my research paper

1. Introduction

  1-1 Purpose of this study

  1-2 Significance of this study

2. Current situation of Reflection activity in Japanese school

   2-1 Opinion of reflection activity in Japanese education

2-2 Current situation of reflection activity in English education in Japan

 3. Research Questions

 What is the effectiveness of reflection?

  How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?

4. What is the effectiveness of reflection?

  4-1 Effectiveness for students

  4-2 Effectiveness for teacher

  4-3 Effectiveness for studying

5. How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?

  5-1 Reflection writing

  5-2 Some examples of reflection writing

6. Conclusion

  6-1 Summary of this research paper

  6-2 Further research

7. References

Synthesis paper

I read five articles which refer to reflection. To do my research, I set two research questions. 

First one is “What is the effectiveness of reflection.?” To answer this question, I found three points. The first effectiveness is that students are able to understand themselves well and utilize for their study. Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, P.9) said, “the exercise encouraged students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, strategies for improvement, outcomes for future learning, emotions and attitudes”. When I readMaryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018, P.6), I saw some examples of reflection question and author argued, “It lends direction and relevance to a course of study. Most importantly, it gives students tangible language they need to discuss their learning, and clear criteria to identify personal strengths and areas for improvement”. Minoru N, Kouichi M, and Hiroh Y (2017,P.209) argued, “These points suggest that participants gradually recognised their actual learning situation well and made additional effort to take better notes during the course.” To sum up, reflection allows students to focus on the ability of themselves and set a goal to study in the future to achieve the goals.

The second point is that reflection allow teachers to understand students and create good relationships. Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J  (2017) argued that “The reflections allow teachers to understand students’ responses to the pedagogical practices that would otherwise remain hidden.” Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, P.2) said, “Finally, reflection journals have the potential to improve student-professor relationships”. In short, teachers will be able to grasp students well. Moreover, this allows teacher to give useful advice for students and create good relationships.

The third point is that reflection activity encourages students. Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) said, “students experienced more positive feelings as time passed and the project improved. Motivation, enthusiasm, and confidence rose from 40 to 53 percent, and negative feelings (anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, etc.) decreased from 36 to 27 percent.” Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J (2017,P.12) argued that “It is obvious that they are able to notice their weaknesses in writing and able to take appropriate actions to revise their essays.” In brief, reflection activity connects to encouraging students for their studying. 

 Second research question is “How can teachers use reflections in each lesson?” Through the research, I found that the easiest way to do reflection is “reflection writing.” There are some ways to do reflection writing. For example, reflection journal, using Facebook, and using Moodle.  There are some ways to do reflection journal. However, I found some important points to implement it. 

First point is that “setting some questions to stimulate reflective thinking.” Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017) use reflection journal as a tool for doing reflection. They set some questions and students have to select one of them. It allows students to do reflection more easily. Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (2018) refer to Student-Led Conferences using reflection. In this article, I saw some writing materials for students which has some questions. 

Second point is that “feedback enable students to motive and improve their skills”. 

To give a feedback, moodle is useful tool. Jun I, John C, and Sarah-Jane S (2013, P.140) argued, “This framework provides learners with not only overall feedback, but also specific advice on which module(s) to review and which competencies they need to develop as illustrated in Figure 3.” Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J  (2017) argued about reflective writing using Facebook. They revealed that Facebook is useful tool to give feedback both students and teachers. 

Annotated Bibliography #5

1. References 

Minoru N, Kouichi M, and Hiroh Y

How Note-Taking Instruction changes Student’s Reflections upon their Learning Activity during a Blended Learning Course (2017)

Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15 (3), 200-210 

URL:https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1146029.pdf

2. Summary

 The style of education has been changed while encouragement of the students’ learning activity is still important. One of the activities which contributes to students’ learning activity and their learning achievement is notetaking. In this study, authors wanted to reveal the relationships between note taking activity and self-efficacy and reflection. Self-reflection regarded as “self-understanding”, “self-achievement”, and “self-satisfaction”. Authors found that note taking improvements affect to the positive growth of participant’s self-reflection. 

3. Assessment

 The goal of this study is to know the effectiveness of note taking activity as a tool to change students’ reflection through the Blended Learning Course. Authors of this paper are Japanese professors. I really wanted to read the article which wrote by Japanese to know the present situation. 

I could see figures in this article, but some of them were difficult for me to understand. However, I could know many things from these datas. 

4.Reflection

This article reveals the relationships between note taking instructions and self-efficacy and reflection. I was surprised that note taking activity affects participants’ emotional factors. Compare 1stwith 2ndsurveys, the scores of self-efficacy and self-assessment were decreased while note taking skills increased. This mean that students recognized their actual learning site. In the same way, the scores of self-satisfactions were decreased because some participants feel difficulty in learning. These factors enable me to answer my research question “How should teachers use reflection in each lesson?”. Through my research, I knew reflection writing is useful. I was very surprised to know that Instruction of note taking is useful.

Annotated Bibliography #4

1. References 

Jun I, John C, and Sarah-Jane S

USING SELF-REFLECTION AND BADGES IN MOODLE- BASED MEDICAL ENGLISH REVIEW COURSES FOR ENHANCING LEARNERS’ AUTONOMY

Conference:International Conference on Educational Technology 2013  (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Nov 29-Dec 1, 2013)

クリックしてED557184.pdfにアクセス

2. Summary

 English is essential ability for medical students, but they have not enough time to study it. Authors structed self-reflection framework on Moodle to stimulate autonomous study for students. Moreover, they focused on portfolio which enable students to recognize what they did. And they implemented the idea of badges which awarded acknowledges the successful completion. This paper is just showing the idea of the way to do reflection and motivate students.

3. Assessment

 The goal of this article is just present the way to do reflection activity and give awarding badges on Moodle to stimulate autonomous studying. Authors suggested Moodle-based-reflection activity. Students are able to do reflection easily and teacher can give them feedback easily, too. I think this is the advantage of online based activities. These ideas are useful for my research. I could understand the process of activity with some examples. 

 4.Reflection

The reason I read this article is that I wanted to read the article which written by Japanese, or the target is Japanese students. This article meets these two things. This article focused on how to do reflection which is one of my research questions. Moodle is familiar for students in my University. Thus, it is possible to adopt. I had read how to do reflection by using Facebook. And this time I read the article about using Moodle. Both of them are online service. I could know the framework of reflection. However, I could not know how it effect for students learning or motivation to study.

Annotated Bibliography #3

1. References 

Nagaletchime, A and Paramaswari, J  (2017)

Exploring students’ reflective writing on Facebook

The EUROCALL Review, Volume 25,(2), 3-15 doi: 10.4995/eurocall.2017.7750

2. Summary

Reflective writing using Facebook is able to motivate students to improve their writing skill and reflective thinking.

Researcher wanted to know that how do self-correction and feedback foster students’ reflection-in-action in Facebook, and what is student’s reflection-on-action after engagement in Facebook for learning purposes. The participants of this research are six students who were 16years old. They are students of urban Chinese school in Malaysia. 

Researcher reveal that reflection-in-action improved the quality of writing. Moreover, the reflections allow teachers to understand students’ responses to the pedagogical practices and improve their teaching. It is possible to do reflection-on-action at the end of all of the activity.

3. Assessment

 The goal of this research is to reveal the way to do reflection-in-action in Facebook, and the purposes of reflection-on-action in Facebook. I can know the way to do reflection through the article and how students feel during the activity. I can see the examples of peer check and do reflection based on the peer check and teacher’s advice. These data were useful to know how the author do the research and how students behave during the activity.

4.Reflection

It was my third article to do my research. In this article I could know the effectiveness of reflection for students. I found that reflection writing is useful as a reflection activity before I read this article. However, I have ever known the way to do reflection with SNS. I think using SNS as a reflection would be good way because most of the students are familiar with internet these days. 

Annotated Bibliography #2

1. References 

Maryann J. Dreas-Shaikha (November 9, 2018)

Student-Led Conferences: Empowering Students through Self-Assessment and Reflection 

Conference:Assessment and Evaluation in the Global South The Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development (November 9, 2018), 1-17 

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED591424.pdf

2. Summary

The purpose of this paper is to reconsider about the way to do parent-teacher meeting at a private English-medium middle school in Pakistan. To do the research, author focus on SLM (Student-led meeting) using self-reflection for the students. Author argued that it is important to make good relationship between students and teacher. By doing so, students are able to trust teacher. Through this research, author forced students to do self-evaluation and do SLM based on it. Students could experience positive feeling like motivation, enthusiasm, and confidence.

3. Assessment

 This article infers to the SLM using self-assessment and reflection. The goal of the research is to reveal the effectiveness of self-assessment and reflection in the SLM. This article is useful for my research because the data in this article clarify students’ feelings during and after the SLM which use self-assessment and reflection. Moreover, I can know how author let students to do reflection. 

4.Reflection

I want to know the effectiveness of reflection, and the way to use reflection during the class. In this article, I can know the effectiveness of reflection with a graphic chart, and how to use reflection with an example. The target of this research is student in private English-medium middle school in Pakistan. I think Pakistan is ESL country. Hence, I want to know the effectiveness of reflection, and the way to use reflection during the class in EFL.

Annotated Bibliography #1

1.References

 Boutet, I, Vandette, P.M, and Valiquette-Tessier, S (2017, March 12)                Evaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of Reflection Writing. The Canadien Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and learning 8(1), 1-11. doi: 10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2017.1.8

2. Summary

Reflection is incorporated as a tool for preparing students for life beyond university. In this article, professors infer to the implementation of a reflection writing exercise and whether writing exercises can promote reflection. Author thinks that the reflection exercise did promote reflection on learning. Writing reflection journal exercise encouraged students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, strategies for improvement, outcomes for future learning, emotions and attitudes. Moreover, reflection have positive impact on the students experience because it stimulates deep approaches to study, encouraging metacognitive awareness, enhancing lifelong learning, increasing motivation, providing an outlet for the affective aspects of learning, and improving student-teacher relations. 

3. Assessment

This article told me about the way to do reflection writing and effectiveness of it. The goal of this article is to investigate the implementation of a reflection writing exercise and whether writing exercises can promote reflection. In this research, authors focus on reflection journal. I think both the data and analysis in this article are reliable.

4. Reflection

This article related to my research in some ways. Especially it argued about effectiveness of reflection and the usage of reflection. This article is useful because I wanted to know the way to use reflection in the class. Also, it helps me to explain why reflection is important for students. However, I want to know the effectiveness of reflection for the students in lower age. 

5 English Resources for the research

  1. Sumaya A. Ahmed1 & Maysoon A. Dakhiel2 “Effectiveness of Learner-Centered Teaching in Modifying Attitude Towards EFL and Developing Academic Self-Motivation Among the 12th Grade Students” (Online Published: March 17, 2019 ) URL:https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1210460.pdf
  2. Isabelle Boutet, Marie-Pier Vandette, Sophie-Claire “Evaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of Reflection Writing” (3-12-2017) URL:https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1134152.pdf
  3. Ahmad Asakereh1 and NouroddinYousofi1 “Reflective Thinking, Self-efficacy, Self-esteem and Academic Achievement of Iranian EFL students” (Date of publication: February 24th,2018) URL:https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1172442.pdf
  4. Sasan Baleghizadeh, Mahboobeh Mortazavi “The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners’ Self-Efficacy” (2014) URL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1053742.pdf
  5. Parastoo Alizadeh Oghyanous “The Effect of Brain-Based Teaching on Young EFL Learners’ Self-Efficacy” (Online Published: April 27, 2017) URL:https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1140108.pdf

To find the Resources, I used “ERIC Institute of Education Sciences” https://eric.ed.gov/?

The reason why I decided to do research about “Reflection”

I decide to do research about “reflection”.

My future goal is to be an English teacher in Elementary school or Junior High School. Now, I am studying how to create English Class. I had some chances to observe English class in Junior High School. At that time, I found that teacher attached importance to reflection. Reflection sheet was well-prepared one. I was very surprised to know that.

According to course of study curriculum guidance, students have to do proactive, interactive, and deep learning. Aim and contents of the English class are important things for students to study. However, reflection is also important to connect motivation to the next lesson. When I saw the guideline of teaching in Gunma, aim has to connect to reflection during the class. “What did you learn?” and “How did you learn?” are two main points. On the work sheet, students did reflection with two points, 1.Language (What sentences / expressions did you learn? ) and, 2.Contents (What did you find / learn in the class?) Because of the different characteristics among the subjects, the viewpoints to do reflection are not same. Teachers should understand well about subject they specialized in. 

I think reflection is important, but I cannot explain the reasons. We human study many things not only in the school but also in daily life. We are able to learn from behavior we did in the past and avoid doing mistake in natural way. I want to know how reflection effect to people’s mind, and what should we do for students as an English teacher. I think doing reflection activity tend to think unimportant during the class. Reflection activity usually do at the end of the class, so teacher may cut it because of the time. I want to obvious the effectiveness to do reflection and convey to teachers and learners.